References22 Feb 2012, by Health Information in
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– After having divided the children into three groups according to their blood cholesterol values the researchers found that the children with the lowest values ate less fat, both saturated and unsaturated, than the children with the intermediate and the highest cholesterol values. No difference was found between the two latter groups. The ratio between saturated and polyunsaturated fat was almost identical in all groups, however. This ratio, considered the best measure of the effect of dietary fat on blood cholesterol, was not calculated in the tables, nor was it mentioned in the text. Here the authors admitted on the one hand that the diet possibly played only a minor role in the development of atherosclerosis; on the other hand they said there was, ”as might be expected”, a relationship between saturated fat and blood cholesterol. And they added that ”such studies do reinforce the need for seriously considering general modifications of food patterns at a young age”.
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– Jeremyah Stamler’s group performed a similar study on 1900 middle-aged men. This study is impossible for anyone but statisticians to evaluate, since absolute figures were absent, and not even simple correlation coefficients were given, except for the relationship between Keys’and Hegstedts formula. The relationship between the diet and the risk of dying from coronary heart disease after the age of 19 was also studied, but again without giving any figures. The amount of saturated fat in the diet did not show any relationship with the risk of dying from coronary heart disease, the authors admitted, but they added that it was not possible to draw conclusions from only one study; if their results were seen ”within the context of the total literature”, they supported the diet-heart idea. (Shekelle RB., and others. Diet, serum cholesterol, and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric Study. New England Journal of Medicine 1981;304:65-70.
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96. Oliver MF. Consensus or nonsensus conferences on coronary heart disease. The Lancet 1985;1:1087-1089.
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– Smith RL. Dietary lipids and heart disease. The contriving of a relationship. American Clinical Laboratory 1989;Nov:26-33.
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105. Stehbens WE. Serum cholesterol and atherosclerosis. New Zealand Medical Journal 1988;101:795-797.
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109. Other critical papers:
Ahrens EH. Dietary fats and coronary heart disease: unfinished business. The Lancet 1979;2:1345-1348.
Ahrens EH. The diet-heart question in 1985: has it really been settled? The Lancet 1985;1:1085-1087.
Altschule MD. The cholesterol problem. Medical Counterpoint Jan 1970, page 11; Can diet prevent atherogenesis? If so, what diet? Medical Counterpoint Nov 1970 page 13.
Apfelbaum M. Vivre avec du cholesterol. Éditions du Rocher, Monaco 1992.
Atrens DM. The questionable wisdom of a low-fat diet and cholesterol reduction. Social Science & Medicine 1994;433-447.
Berger M. The cholesterol non-consensus. In: Somogyi JC, Biró G, Hötzel D (eds), Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risks. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta 1992;nr 49:125-130.
Berger M. Der Cholesterin-Non-Konsensus in der Primärprävention der koronaren Herzkrankheit. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 1993;82:399-405.
Cliff WJ. Coronary heart disease: Animal fat on trial. Pathology 1987;19: 325-328.
Hulley SB, Walsh JMB, Newman TB. Health policy on blood cholesterol. Time to change directions. Circulation 1992;86:1026 1029.
McCormick J, Skrabanek P. Coronary heart disease is not preventable by population interventions. The Lancet 1988;2:839-41.
McMichael J. Prevention of coronary heart-disease. The Lancet 1976;2:569.
McMichael J. Fats and arterial disease. American Heart Journal 1979;98: 409-412.
Meade TW, Chakrabarti R. Arterial disease research: observation or intervention? The Lancet 1972;2:913-916.
Mohler H. Die Cholesterin-Neurose. Der Standpunkt des Ernährungswissenschaftlers. Salle-Sauerländer, Frankfurt am Main 1978.
Moore TJ. Heart failure. Random House, New York 1989.
Olson RE. CHD intervention trials and all-cause mortality. Circulation 1994;90:2569-2570.
Palumbo PJ. National Cholesterol Education Program: does the emperor have any clothes? Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1988;63:88-90.
Skrabanek P, McCormick J. Follies and fallacies in medicine. Tarragon Press, Glasgow, 1989.
Skrabanek P. Nonsensus consensus. The Lancet 1990;335:1446-1447.
Stallones RA. Ischemic heart disease and lipids in blood and diet. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 1983;3:155-185.
Worm N. Ernährung und koronare Herzkrankheit: Wie sinnvoll ist diät? (Nutrition and coronary heart disease: how important is diet?) Versicherungsmedizin 1995;47:116-121.
110. The Lipid Research Clinic’s coronary primary prevention trial results. 1. Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1984;251:351-64.
111. Miettinen TA, and others. Multifactorial primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged men. JAMA 1985;254:2097-2102.
112. Marmot MG, and others. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: prevalence of coronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. American Journal of Epidemiology 1975;102:514-525.
113. Marmot MG, Syme SL. Acculturation and coronary heart disease in Japanese-Americans. American Journal of Epidemiology 1976;104:225-247.
114. LaRosa, and others. The cholesterol facts. A summary of the evidence relating dietary fats, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. A joint statement by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Circulation 1990;81:1721-1733.
115. Anderson KM, Castelli WP, Levy D. Cholesterol and mortality. 30 years of follow-up from the Framingham study. JAMA 1987;257:2176-2180.
116. Ravnskov U. Quotation bias in reviews of the diet-heart idea. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1995;48:713-719.